Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh A quantitative analysis of Consumer Behaviour

Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh A quantitative analysis of Consumer Behaviourin relation to Electronic Cars resulting in a new Green Marketing approach for the German car industry. Nhằm hỗ trợ cho bạn học viên làm bài luận văn thạc sĩ ngành ngôn ngữ anh được tốt nhất, Luận văn Panda đã và đang cập nhập những bài luận, luận án mới nhất, những đề cương chi tiết và những đề tài hay nhất. Các bạn có thể tham khảo thêm tại đây nhé.

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1. Justification of the Dissertation Topic Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh A quantitative analysis of Consumer Behaviour

1.1 Academic Justification

The goal of this dissertation is to analyse the reasons behind the proved, mildly growing demand for E-cars and to provide valuable recommendations for an improved marketing strategy (Elektroauto, no date). These will be elaborated in due consideration of consumer behaviour theory, branding strategy theory and green branding theory, which will be discussed in the literature review. It needs to be analysed how the potential E-car consumer behaves during the purchase process in order to be able to influence this behaviour through targeted marketing activities. Additionally, it is necessary to investigate how the current marketing activities of German E-car brand manufacturers can be optimized. Hence, branding strategy theory has to be researched in order to understand how a brand should be communicated successfully. In this case, the E-car can be categorized as a ‘green branded product’, which needs to be marketed according to specific branding requirements. A ‘green brand’ is defined by a specific set of brand attributes and facilities related to a perceived environmentally friendly approach. Some studies deal with the perceived value of a green brand and ways to communicate green brands properly but not in relation to the marketing strategy of electronic cars (Hartmann, ApoalazaIba´n˜ez, ForcadaSainz, 2005, p. 10). Frank Dophreide, German marketing manager and CEO of a leading German marketing agency, pointed out that German E-car brands have to fulfil successfully the gap between a modern premium car and a new environmentally friendly concept (Steinkirchner, 2013). Therefore, green-branding rules in relation to E-cars will be discussed in the literature review. Valuable Green branding theory discussing how to market green branded product the best way can be adapted to branding strategy of E-cars. Green brands should no longer be perceived as a niche market trend, but rather as building environmental standards into mainstream brands. In the current century, consumption develops increasingly in the direction of individuality, innovation and sustainability, which proves the increasing consumer demand for green products. There is a trend of people returning to the older, more basic values and natural products instead of Americanised mass consumption (Gordon, 2002, p. 3).

The results of this academic paper should provide important information for the car industry regarding how to sell a green product minus the green brand image. The added value of this academical paper is to provide significant new knowledge regarding how to market E-cars in Germany sucessfully, while influencing consumers’ buying behaviour positively. Despite the proved, mildly growing demand for E-car today, further studies show that on a long term the demand for E-cars will rise significantly, what will be discussed in chapter ‘2.2.1. German E-car industry’. Thefore it is important to analyse current marketing strategies on the german E-car sector, how they can be optimize to ifluence the future demand positively.
For a successful investigation the dissertation follows a logical structure to facilitate the understanding for the reader of this dissertation, which will be described in the following (figure 1). The advanced research for this dissertation let the researcher identify a lack of literature, which is discussed in this chapter. The researcher identified the industrial problem of a mildly growing consumer demand for electronic cars. The researcher combines the academic literature in the fields of consumer behaviour, branding strategy and green branding strategy with the industrial literature to solve the problem of low demand and a lack of academic knowledge how to market E-cars properly. Through a quantitative survey the researcher wants to investigate the reasons for the low E-car demand in German also in relation to current marketing activities on German the E-car sector. Data findings and adapted academic theory, how to market green branded product successfully will lead to a new recommended marketing approach to optimize marketing activities on the German E-car sector in the future.

1.2 Industrial Justification

In recent years, the innovative electronic car has increasingly penetrated the German car industry (Bayme vbm, 2012, p. 14). The chairman of BMW pointed out that the electronic car will be the future means of transportation. He guaranteed technological improvement and innovative progress of the electronic vehicle (Prof. Dr. Jung et al., 2012, p. 4). An electronic car is defined as a general vehicle that is driven by an electromotor using electric energy. It is also called an electric vehicle (EV) or a zero emission vehicle, as it gets its energy from batteries. The charging process requires an average socket or a public charging station (Backhaus et al., 2011, p. 3). In comparison, hybrid cars are also electro-driven but have a combustion engine (VDA, 2013, p.136). From a political and ecological perspective, it is important to increase the usage of electronic cars in order to achieve a reduction in environmentally damaging emissions, thereby additionally providing value for social welfare. Protecting the environment is a political goal as scientific studies show that the ozone is increasingly destroyed by ecological damage through, for example, automobile exhaust. The electronic car is a future mobility solution that does not pollute the environment and that, therefore, contributes towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions (VDA, 2013, p. 117). Statistics indicate that 70% of the population will live in cities in 2050. Urban environmentally friendly mobility thus becomes even more important. The Environmental Action Program of the EU commission, in force from 2013 to 2020, has set the future development goals for the car industry. The car industry has to produce and operate in a more resource-efficient and environmentally friendly manner. The EU government has set further goals for the reduction of CO2 pollution by 2020 after the introduction, in 2006, of strong regulations to produce cars that cause 18% less CO2 pollution. The EU commission has also introduced longer tax exemptions for electronic motor vehicles for over 10 years, to enforce positive development of the electronic car industry. Under these conditions, the German E-car sector is forced to invest in R&D, restructure processes and gaining additional expertise very fast to meet governmental requirements (VDA, 2013, p. 117).

The previously listed facts underline the importance of a successful marketing strategy for E-cars today in the German automobile sector. But the proven low private demand for E-cars in Germany is concerning (FOM, 2010, p. 72). In January 2014, 12,156 electro vehicles were registered by the German Federal Office for Motor Traffic (Elektroauto, no date).

To add new information to this research field, the current marketing campaign of BMW for its E-cars series, BMWi, will be analysed as a base for a critical analysis of how a customer reacts to E-car marketing campaigns and what can be improved further. The BMW Group is one of the most successful automobile and motorcycle manufacturers worldwide, and one of the largest industrial companies in Germany. BMW is also a pioneer of doing big, global marketing campaigns for their new E-car model in Germany in 2013. Hence, the BMW is chosen as representative for all German E-car brands (MarketLine, 2013, p. 4). The new premium E-car BMWi3, and the sports E-car BMWi8, were introduced in November 2013 at the IAA, the biggest German automobile exhibition. The integrated marketing strategy of the BMW i3 consists of print, online and TV campaigns. The main goal of the campaign is to create a positive emotion in relation to the product by encouraging potential customers to sign up for a driving experience. The campaign has an international and consistent online appearance with focus on the marketing movie. The campaign also includes activities in the area of social media, like the Facebook page with a configuration mode and the possibility to register for a BMWi3 test drive (OnetoOne, 2013). Frank Dophreide evaluated the BMW marketing strategy. BMW has to fulfil successfully the gap between a modern premium car and a new environmentally friendly concept. The electronic vehicle will be the car of the future and needs to be sold to a broad population in future. Thus, it is important that BMW sells its new E-cars like conventional cars. Public clichés—like, electronic cars are just for people from the eco-movement—must be prevented. The BMW brand symbolizes dynamic design and driving passion, which must extend to the new electronic car as well. The new sports E-car model, BMWi8, breaks the cliché of electronic cars with its sports car features. Since the model underlines the revolution of electronic cars, it was a good strategy to present both models at the same time. The public may expect a revolutionary campaign and product presentation, which BMW consciously wants to avoid. The concept of the electronic car itself is revolutionary enough. The marketing team of BMW feels that the more spectacular the staging of the E-car, the higher the entry barriers for customers. BMW wants to persuade customers to purchase the electronic car in a natural way. The most important marketing tool and the main goal of the campaign will be the personal driving experience. The customer can experience the E-car with all his senses, feeling the power and the driving fun. The customer should be curious and become familiarized with the E-car (Steinkirchner, 2013). The German car industry can remain successful when it takes part in the ecological revolution. The car should no longer be a status symbol; it must be reinvented (Heuser, Lamparter, Pinzler, 2011). This academic investigation analyses how successful the marketing campaign of BMW was through analysing how the consumer perceives the BMWi brand today and if they are willed to buy an E-car or if the marketing campaign influenced their consumer behaviour positive. From the analyses of the BMW marketing campaign 2013 for E-cars, valuable recommendations for German E-car brand manufacturer can be provided how to optimize marketing activities for E-cars in general.

1.3 Personal Justification

The researcher of this academic investigation has a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration and Economics and an advanced master’s degree in Business Administration, with both degrees focusing consistently on marketing. Furthermore, the researcher gathered important practical experience during one-year internships in the marketing departments of L’Oréal and Estée Lauder. Due to the educational and professional background o fthe researcher, he decided to provide significant new knowledge in the field of marketing. In recent years, the researcher has developed a particular interest in green marketing literature. Green marketing is a responsible management process that identifies and satisfies those stakeholder requirements that do not affect human or natural environmental well-being (Emery, 2012, p. 17). Due to the researcher’s personal interest in this field, he was interested in the BMW marketing campaign for the new premium electronic car series, BMWi, in Germany and the already discussed lack of customer acceptance for E-cars (Steinkirchner, 2013). The researcher was interested in determining how to market green branded products successfully in relation to the new electronic car series of BMW.

Table of contents Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh A quantitative analysis of Consumer Behaviour

  • List of Figures.
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Justification of the Dissertation Topic
  • Academic Justification
  • Industrial Justification
  • Personal Justification
  • Literature Review
  • Introduction
  • Academic Review
  • Consumer Behaviour in the German E-­‐car industry
  • Role of Marketing Communication in Consumer Behaviour Theory
  • The Hierarchy of Effects model
  • Consumer Proposition Acquisition Process Model
  • Influence factors on the E-­‐car Purchasing Decision Process
  • Consumer Opinion leads to Consumer Attitude
  • Rational and emotional driven Purchasing Process of an E-­‐car
  • Branding Strategy in the German E-­‐car industry
  • Definition of a Brand
  • Consumer-­‐based perspective on Brand Equity
  • Brand Perception
  • Brand Image
  • The ValueDrivers model
  • A Green Branding approach in relation to the German E-­‐car industry
  • Definition of Green Branding
  • Danger of Green Washing
  • Marketing Communications of a Green Brand
  • Green Brand building of German E-­‐car producers
  • Contextual Review
  • German E-­‐car industry
  • Evolution and Future Outlook of the German E-­‐car industry
  • Reasons for the actual low Consumer Demand of E-­‐cars in Germany
  • E-­‐car Brand Strategy of BMW
  • Brand Strategy of BMW
  • Goal of the Brand Strategy of the BMW Group
  • Communicated Brand Image in the Marketing Campaign of the brand BMWi
  • Conclusion
  • Research Methodology and Methods
  • Introduction
  • Overall Quantitative Research Objectives
  • Positivism
  • Deductive Method
  • Hypotheses
  • Survey
  • Non-­‐Probability Sampling
  • Quota Sampling
  • Sample and Quota groups
  • Quantitative data collection and sampling tool
  • Data Analysing3.11 Methodology Plan
  • Limitations
  • Ethical Implications
  • Time Allocation
  • Conclusion
  • Data Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Data Analysis of the Sample
  • Data Analysis for Hypothesis 1
  • Product Information
  • Brand Personality
  • Product Associations
  • Data Analysis for Hypothesis 2
  • Data Analysis for Hypothesis 3
  • Data analysis for Hypothesis 4
  • Recommendations
  • 6.1 Future Academic Study
  • 6.2 Recommendations for the Industry
  • 6.2.1 Recommendations for the Consumer Behaviour
  • 6.2.2 Recommendations for Hypothesis 1
  • 6.2.3 Recommendations for Hypothesis 2
  • 6.2.4 Recommendations for Hypothesis 3
  • 6.2.5 Recommendations for Hypothesis 4
  • Conclusion
  • Overall Conclusion
  • Self Reflection on Own Learning and Performance
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Learning Style Theories
  • 3. Personal Achievements
  • 4. Problems encountered
  • 6. Action plan for a life long Learning Process
  • 7. Conclusion
  • Appendices

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