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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh Assessing Performance Management In The Not-For-Profit Sector
1.1 RATIONALE FOR THE RESEARCH TOPIC
Increasingly, most organisations including non-profit organisations are utilising their principal assets which is their employment force to gain more success and competitiveness. Consequently, the need to find effective performance management strategies that will recognise, support, improve, measure, and reward employees’ performance at work is of great importance to these organisations DeNisi (2011). Researchers Becker et al, 2011; Boezeman & Ellemers 2009) suggests in the non-for-profit sector, practitioners have been experiencing many challenges in trying to modify or adopt an employee performance management system that is remains consistently a difficult human capital system to successful implement fully without combating a plethora of problems.
In addition, charitable organisations depend largely on motivated volunteer labour force to achieve their mission and good will financial aid from several sources to reward, motivate, and retain the services of their staff (Boezeman & Ellemers 2009). According to (Ziemek, 2006), past research activities have concentrated on the subject of motivation of volunteer rather than on focus in managing and developing their performance. Therefore, this research presents itself an opportunity to investigate workers experiences in the charitable and not-for-profit (NFP) sector as the model scenario for its perceived high organisational commitment and its sense of philanthropic mission (Alatrista, & Arrowsmith, 2004). One of the greatest challenges for volunteer-involving organisations is achieving a balance between the need for informality and formality in their human resource management practices in managing the employee’s performance and providing the resources to nurture employee development
(Lynch & Smith, 2009). This is compatible with the hard HRM strategy model which supports the idea of managing the workers as a means to achieve the organisation’s strategy and as a resource that to be used judiciously and rational way to gain competitive success the organisation needs (Pinnington & Edwards, 2000). On the other hand, the soft HRM practice focuses less on using people as a resource but seeks to recognise the needs of the employees in the running of the organisation (Pinnington & Edwards, 2000). According Ainsworth (2012) the UK Charity Commission financial disclosure, income rose from £3.2bn to £58.9bn compared with the previous 12 months in spite of the difficult financial environment, income was still growing faster than inflation and that financial figures from the UK’s National Council for Voluntary Organisations, put the voluntary sector’s total income for year of 2009/10 at £36.7bn (Ainsworth 2012.) Even though there is an increase of cash inflow in this third sector, why is that the organisations approach to utilising human assets to achieve strategic goals and objectives has encountered a mix review. However, Moxham (2010) suggests that Not-for-profit (NFP) organisations consider the introduction of performance management system less crucial than organisational structural activities or that the central benefits of the use of PMS are motivational rather than instrumental. However, human resources (HR) managers have found it difficult to manage employee’s commitment and expectations to the organisation (Muller-Camen et al 2008; and Martinez & Kennerly (2010) and British managers in Not-for-profit sectors found it difficult to cope with HRM issues giving other areas low priority in the context of their own managerial workloads increasing, lack confidence in their ability to complete an HR role, and (Hunter & Renwick 2009) find it hard to treat staff as assets to be developed. Is there a conflict between an employee performance management system in charity which arguably is grounded in the soft HRM and the hard HRM management style in an organisation that makes the needs and interests of its workforce second to the interests of the organisation? Lynch & smith (2009) qualitative findings in Not-for-profit (NFP) organisations suggests that the management of volunteers is not universally formalised, that the absence of a job description or guidelines as was required of a volunteering job is present, and that managers usually depend on personal discretion or their own personal likeability scale on a case by case and were unlikely to be openly honest about the worker’s failings or unsuitability.
A survey undertaken by WorldatWork & Sibson Consulting (2010) with organisations that had fewer than 100 employees to more than 100,000 employees,(N=571) concluded that the main challenges of an employee based PMS the organisations represented in the sample were managers/supervisors led, that is, they gave inaccurate and poor meaningful staff reviews, poor goal setting, managers dedicated more time completing forms than conducting performance reviews. Furthermore, 71% agreed that employee performance management staff reviews is a yearly process although goal setting, feedback and coaching takes place throughout the year, and 30% expressed distrust of their employee performance management system (WorldatWork & Sibson Consulting, 2010) . Findings by Dartington (1996) reported the founder /the most senior leadership of the organisation creates the internal vision of leadership and there is a sense of unchallengeable authority especially in smaller organisations.
The thrust of the research would take a quantitative approach to investigate the perceptions of the volunteers, and staff of their employee performance management system to establish if there is link between the hard HRM practice at work and what deficits problems of the employee performance system and broken psychological contract of its workers. Survey ratings of perceptions of managers in carrying out PMS activities would indicate what areas of implementation of model of PMS presented are largely ignored and supported.
1.2 RESEARCH AIM
The researcher’s intention is to investigate the opinions and perceptions of staff (paid and unpaid) who work in social charity/ not-for-profit (NFP) organisations about their organisation’s employee performance management system. The researcher intends to shed light on what are structural weaknesses and strengths of the organisation’s employee performance management system and its impact on the psychological contract of its volunteers and staff. Is there a link between organisation’s employee performance management system and its hard HRM practices/management style?
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
By exploring and analysing the employee experiences and perceptions of their existing performance management system, to determine the areas of strength and weaknesses of the charity organisations method of managing individual performance of its work force. Furthermore, the research intends to put forward recommendations to charitable organisations who seek for ways and methods to improve their employee performance management systems.
1.4 BENEFITS OF THE STUDY
There is need to contribute to the growing debate about the employee based performance management system within the Not-for profit sector. Furthermore, the research is applicable to organisations of various sizes who seek to improve their HR system and reduce high turnover. Understanding the differences in managing all staff including both volunteers who are growing segment of the workforce, organisations would be well placed to put in place better HR practices that would attract and retain highly skilled motivated staff to their organisation.
1.5 DELIMITATION OF SCOPE
The research is restricted by time and budget allocated for this research. Furthermore, the research is a survey study and therefore it is subject to problems commonly associated with carrying out a survey research and its findings. The research did not include all types of Not-for-profit organisations and therefore sample for this study came from European based social-related charity organisations that have no overt political or religious affiliations.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Assessing Performance Management In The Not-For-Profit Sector
- 1 RATIONALE FOR THE RESEARCH TOPIC
- 2 RESEARCH AIM
- 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
- 4 BENEFITS OF THE STUDY
- 5 DELIMITATION OF SCOPE
- 3 CHAPTER
- 1 LITERATURE REVIEW
- 1.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM
- 1.2 `Hard` HRM
- 1.3 `Soft` HRM
- 2 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
- 3 INTEGRATED STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS MODEL
- 3.1 Purpose and Benefits of an Integrated Model
- 3.2 Problems
- 4 THE DEBATE OF PMS IN NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS
- 4.1 Lack of Longitudinal Empirical data
- 4.2 Cynicism
- 4.3 Labour Cost
- 4.4 Other Problems
- 4.5 BENEFITS AND EFFECTS FOR AN EMPLOYEEE PEFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AN ORGANISATION
- 4 FOUR CYCLE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MODEL
- 1.1 DEFINATION OF BUSINESS ROLE
- 2 PLANNING THE PERFORMANCE
- 2.1 Purpose Of Strategy Implementation
- 2.2 Training Of Managers/Supervisors
- 2.3 Employee Development: Training and Development
- 3 DELIVERY AND MONITORING
- 3.1 Communicating the Plan
- 3.2 Trusted Staff Feedback/Appeal Process
- 3.3 Leadership Style
- 4 ASSESSMENT AND REWARD
- 4.1 Choice of Reward Systems
- 5 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
- 5.1 Purpose Of Performance Appraisal
- 5.2 Problems Associated With Appraisal
- 6 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT
- 6.1 Definition
- 6.2 Broken Psychological Contract
- 6.3 The Link between Psychological Contract and Employee Performance Management System
- 7 VOLUNTEERISM
- 7.1 Definition
- 7.2 Difference between an Unpaid Employee and Volunteer
- 7.3 Who Are The Volunteers?
- 7.4 The Two Strands of Volunteerism
- 7.5 The Reasons and Benefits from a Volunteer’s Perspective
- 8 HYPOTHESES
- 5 METHODOLOGY
- 1 Overview
- 2 DEFINATION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
- 2.1 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHIES
- 2.2 RESEARCH DESIGN & PROCESS
- 2.3 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY
- 2.4 RESEARCH APPROACH
- 2.5 RESEARCH STRATEGY
- 2.6 RESEARCH CHOICE
- 2.7 Time Horizons
- 2.8 TECHNIQUES & PROCEDURES
- 2.9 Sample Selection And Research Criteria
- 2.10 Population and Sample
- 2.11 Research Ethical Issues
- 2.12 Issue and Critical Success Factors with the Chosen Research
- 6 EMPERICAL FINDINGS
- 1 RELIABILITY OF SURVEY RESULTS (CRONBACH ALPHA)
- 2 DESCRIPTIVE RESULTS
- 3 ANALYSIS OF EACH SURVEY ITEM
- 4 NONPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS
- 4.1 FRIEDMAN TEST STATICS
- 5 HYPOTHESIS 1
- 5.1 SIGNIFICANCE ANALYSIS – FRIEDMAN TEST (pair wise)
- 5.2 HYPOTHESIS NO.2
- 7 DISCUSSION
- 1 Discussing the hypothesis
- 2 Discussing Hypothesis No
- 1 LIMITATIONS
- 2 RECOMMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
- 9 REFLECTIONS ON LEARNING & SKILL DEVELOPMENT
- 10 LIST OF REFERENCES
Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh Assessing Performance Management In The Not-For-Profit Sector, Những bài luận văn mẫu, những đề cương chi tiết đạt điểm cao, luôn được Luận văn Panda cập nhập mỗi ngày. Các bạn học viên nào gặp khó khăn và muốn tham khảo bảng giá viết thuê luận văn thạc sĩ, hoặc muốn biết quy trình làm luận văn thạc sĩ, thì có thể tham khảo thêm tại đây.