Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh Financial Performance Analysis: A study on Selected Private Banks in Ethiopia. Để hoàn thành được một bài luận văn thạc sĩ ngành ngôn ngữ anh không phải là một việc dễ dàng, để có thể giúp đỡ cho các bạn học viên một cách tốt nhất trong việc làm bài luận văn thạc sĩ. Luận văn Panda đã luôn cập nhập những bài luận văn thạc sĩ đạt điểm cao để hỗ trợ các bạn được tốt hơn.
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1.1 Background of the Study
Though economic development of a particular country is dependent on a number of factors such as industrial growth and development, modernization of agriculture, expansion of domestic and foreign trade, political stability, its dependence to largest extent on the banking sector is undeniable and/or banks play a key role in improving economic efficiency by channeling funds from resource surplus unit to those with limited access and/or the needy. Misra & Aspal (2013)
According to Zerayehu et al., (2013) and Ermiase Mengesha(2016) a sound financial system is indispensable for a healthy and vibrant economy. The financial system in Ethiopia, which is characterized as highly profitable, concentrated, and moderately competitive is dominated by banking industry and it is also amongst the major under banked economy in the world (World Bank, 2013). The development of a vibrant and active private banking system that complements with the existing public sector work is considered important to Ethiopia’s economic progress according to the professional advice of group of experts working in well-known financial organization like WB, AfDB, and IMF. (Keatinge, 2014)
Hence, maximum care should be taken in order to maintain the safety and soundness of private commercial banks in Ethiopia. Any failure /incident in the banking industry especially in a country where the commercial banks dominate the financial sector will definitely have a contagious effect that can lead to bank runs and crises. Hence, it would be mandatory to scrutinize and take proactive measures to maintain the health of the economy and build up the public confidence.
When analyzing financial fitness, corporate accountants and investors alike closely examine a company’s financial statements and balance sheets to get a comprehensive picture of profitability. The study used to solve the problem explained such as financial statements in their raw format do not reveal the information as per required by its users. There are a number of metrics and corresponding financial ratios that are used to measure profitability. Typically, analysts look to the standardized profitability metrics outlined in the generally acceptedaccounting principles (GAAP), because they are easily comparable across business and industries, but some non- GAAP metrics are widely used.
There is also no performance measurement among the private commercial banks operating in the country. This undermines the banks financial operations such as profitability, efficiency, liquidity, and solvency.
The study employs the ratio analysis to compare the financial performance for selected private Commercial Banks in Ethiopia. Presently there are sixteen private commercial banks and three state owned banks operating in Ethiopia. From those banks we were select ten private commercial banks namely: Awash International Bank, Bank of Abyssinia, Cooperative Bank of Oromia, Dashen Bank, Lion International Bank, Nib International Bank, Oromia International Bank, United Bank, Wegagen Bank, and Zemen Bank. To do so, fifteen financial ratio analysis used such as, operating profit margin, net profit margin, return on assets, return on equity, assets utilization, operating expenses ratio, loans to deposits ratio, loans to assets ratio, debt to equity ratio, earning per share, price earnings ratio, dividend payout ratio, dividend yield ratio, inventory turnover ratio and equity multiplier.
Most of the studies on bank profitability have categorized the determinants of profitability into endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous factors are those firm specific factors that result from the decision and policies of management. Hence, efficiency, profitability, liquidity, capital structure, and asset quality ratios are among the endogenous factors. On the other hand, market concentration, ownership, and other macroeconomic factors such as economic growth and inflation are classified as exogenous factors. Unlike in Ethiopia, there are many literatures and arguments as to which factors determine commercial banks profitability in the developed world.
Hence, owing to existence of very limited literature in the subject matter and inspired by ratio analysis we explored the performance among selected private commercial banks in Ethiopia. The rationale behind focusing on bank specific variables only is owing to the existing less competitive and highly protected Ethiopian banking environment. Moreover, the exogenous factors are not expected to differ among the target banks that are selected for this particular study since all are operating under the same financial system, same regulatory organ and are within the same geographic area.
Therefore, this work solely seeks to examine the effect of bank specific variables to rank the overall financial performance of selected private commercial banks. The project used seven years of secondary data in the industry so as to systematically analyze the effects of banks specific performance analysis. Hence, all the target banks selected for this particular study are classified under the medium category since all of them have stayed seven or more years in the business.
1.2 Overview of Ethiopian Private Financial Sector
The financial sector in Ethiopia is composed of the banking industry, insurance companies, microfinance institutions, saving and credit cooperatives and the informal financial sector. The banking industry accounts about 95% of the total financial sector assets, implying that the financial sector is under developed, and activities that banks could perform are legally limited, which in turn contribute to lesser contestability. (Zerayehu et al., 2013)
Ethiopia’s banking industry is closed and generally less developed than its regional peers. The industry comprise one state owned development bank and 18 commercial banks, two of which are state-owned including the dominant commercial bank of Ethiopia (CBE), with assets accounting for approximately 70 percent of the industry’s total holdings. As per the information disclosed in the NBE’s Second Quarter Report (2014/15), the Ethiopian financial system is comprised of one central bank (NBE), 19 commercial banks of which three are owned by the government, 32 micro-finance institutions’ (MFIs), 17 insurance companies of which 16 are privately owned, two pension funds namely: Social Security Authority and Private Sector Social Welfare Agency and numerous savings and microcredit associations. It contrasts with regional and international peer countries where banking industries have a much higher share of private sector and foreign participation. (Keatinge , 2014)
Financial intermediation is relatively low in Ethiopia and it is in declining trend. Financial intermediation is a driving force for economic development. In 2011, credit to private sector was around 14 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP). This indicates that it is falling behind its sub-Saharan African peers, which was compared to be 23 percent on average. Despite the overall disintermediation trend, the Ethiopian financial sector continues to have the potential to be a driver of economic growth. The banking sector remains, stable, well capitalized and continues to be highly profitable. The Ethiopian banking sector ranks higher than the SSA average in terms of profitability measured on the basis of Return on Equity (ROE).
Modern banking in Ethiopia was introduced in 1905 by an agreement between the then Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II and a representative of the British owned National Bank of Egypt. The stated agreement has led to the establishment of Bank of Abyssinia and it has been inaugurated in Feb16, 1906. Later on in the 1930’s, the bank was bought by the Ethiopian government and the State Bank of Ethiopia was established by a proclamation issued in August 1942. This bank was later disintegrated into two different banks forming the National Bank of Ethiopia and the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia. (Leulseged 2005; Alemayehu 2006)
In the history of Ethiopian banking industry, Addis Ababa Bank Share Company was the first private Ethiopian bank that had been established by the Ethiopian citizens’ initiative and with the collaboration of National and Grandly bank London which had a possession of 40 percent of the total share holdings. The stated company had started its operation in 1964 with a paid up capital of two million. In the pre-1974 era, there hardly was any banking competitive environment, since the banking industry was dominated by a single government owned State Bank of Ethiopia. (Zerayehu et al., 2013)
After the termination of fragile and inefficient state-dominated banking sector that has existed in Ethiopia from 1974-1991, the current government restructured and introduced a new Banking and Monetary proclamation that gave more autonomy and further clarified the National Bank of Ethiopia’s activities as a regulator and supervisor of the banking sector. Moreover, the reform has legalized investment in the domestic private banking sector in 1994 under proclamation no. 84/1994 that marked the beginning of a new era in the Ethiopian banking sector. (Admasu & Asayehegn 2014) In the Ethiopian banking industry, there exist only two forms of bank ownership: fully government owned or fully privately owned. No hybrid form of the two forms of ownership or the involvement of foreign ownership exists. (Tesfaye, 2014). Ethiopian law prohibits non-Ethiopian citizens from investing in Ethiopian Financial Institutions (NBE, Guideline No.FIS/01/2016). So almost all share holders of Ethiopian private banks are Ethiopian citizens.
To sum up, the banking industry in Ethiopia is highly regulated and closed from foreign competition. Banks operate extremely in conservative lending policies and require physical collateral for virtually all loans constrain inclusive growth. Key risks to financial stability and inclusive growth include: Unpredictable inflation; foreign exchange shortage exacerbated by unstable export performance; lack of skilled manpower in the banking industry; collateral based lending is constraining private sector lending and alternative financing mechanism is lacking; ineffective ICT infrastructure on account of very weak internet connectivity; regulatory burden and/or tightening of regulations (the 27% NBE bill and entry barrier for new private banks by increasing the capital requirement can be mentioned ); restriction of foreign bank entry; lack of standardized accounting practices, and very weak and less organized risk management practices. Getnet(2012) and Ermiase(2016).
1.3 Statement of the problem
Competition in the Ethiopian banking industry is labeled as incontestable and difficult to enter owing to legal, technological and economic policy factors. Zerayehu et al. (2013) As a matter of fact, the Ethiopian government has implemented a number of reforms in the banking sector since it took power. However, all the measures taken to improve the banking sector significantly fall short. Hence, the existing Ethiopian financial sector is not able to offer adequate and competitive services on the scale required and it is not yet competitive and efficient. Admassu & Asayehgn (2014), Ermiase(2016).
Moreover, the Ethiopian banking sector has been known for supplying limited financial products, expensive branch expansions, low levels of technology utilization, huge reliance on manual work, and concentration on urban areas over the past two decades. Therefore, private commercial banks cannot continue doing business using traditional business models in this very competitive industry and need to upgrade their overall competitiveness. As a matter of fact, it has alerted the need for frequent bank examinations all over the world. Thus, Ethiopian private commercial banks need to learn timely on how to stay healthy, competent and profitable in a very competitive and dynamic business environment. In this study we will alert the private commercial banking sector to take necessary measures based on the recommended analysis. And also we have shown the position of selected banks in the industry. Hence, this particular research is meant to fill the gap in this regard.
1.4 Research Objectives
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study is to analyze the performance of private commercial banks in Ethiopia and to rank the respective private commercial banks based on their performances.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives:
Specific objectives that are derived from the general objective and needed to be addressed in the studies are:
- To identify the key bank performance.
- To measure the significance level of performance drivers in Ethiopian private commercial banks
- To examine the performance of private commercial banks by rating each bank specific proxy (in a multi -dimensional way)
1.5 Significance of the study
This study assists investors in understanding the current situation (strength & weaknesses) of Private commercial banks in Ethiopia which in turn will help investors to make information based decisions. The outputs of the study are expected to have the following importance:
- It assists the government body to rank the private banks based on results.
- It helps for decision making of the new investors in the private banking industry.
- To be used as a spring board for other advanced researchers.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study is going to use the data’s of ten private commercial banks for the years 2009-2015 (7 years) ; however, results can be generalized to cover all private commercial banks.
1.7 Limitations of the study
The study is limited to the performance analysis of private commercial banks by applying financial ratio analysis only.
1.8 Organization of the Study
Introduction Literature Review Research Method Quantitative Research(using secondary data, books, journals, working papers , internet sources, etc. )
- Empirical research
- Analysis of finding
Luận Văn Thạc Sĩ Tiếng Anh Financial Performance Analysis: A study on Selected Private Banks in Ethiopia. Để hoàn thành được một bài luận văn thạc sĩ ngành ngôn ngữ anh không phải là một việc dễ dàng, để có thể giúp đỡ cho các bạn học viên một cách tốt nhất trong việc làm bài luận văn thạc sĩ. Bạn nào còn đang gặp khó khăn trong việc làm bài luận văn, và muốn tham khảo bảng giá viết thuê luận văn thạc sĩ là bao nhiêu, thì các bạn truy cập vàoLuận văn Panda để biết thêm thông tin chi tiết về dịch vụ nhé.
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